The war continues

Part Three deals with the later development of the war until peace was signed in 1604. It makes clear how far the Spanish navy had recovered and the extent to which its ocean-going routes had been consolidated. The epilogue reflects upon the surprising fact that this episode, which is essential for an understanding of Spain’s place in the world, has remained hidden in history. There is a discussion about the reasons for this concealment. It is revealing that it was the Chair of the British Historical Association Secondary Education Committee, Ben Walsh, who denounced such a historiographical conspiracy:

“The English Armada has never been taught in British schools, and the majority of history teachers may not be aware that it ever happened. Cultures tend to prize their victories. The Spanish Armada is seen as a victory and the English Armada is obviously not. The modern curriculum stems from these cultural values. . . . It may seem unfair that a disastrous attack by England against Spain has been completely forgotten while a disastrous attack by Spain against England is universally remembered.”